Walter murdoch 72 essays

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A member of the prominent Australian Murdoch family , he was the father of Catherine, later prominent as Dr Catherine King MBE — , a radio broadcaster in Western Australia; the uncle of both Sir Keith , a journalist and newspaper executive, and Ivon , a soldier in the Australian Army; and the great uncle of international media proprietor Rupert Murdoch. Murdoch University is named in Sir Walter's honour; as is Murdoch , the suburb surrounding its main campus, located in Perth, Western Australia.

Murdoch was born on 17 September at Rosehearty , Scotland to Rev. After teaching in country and suburban schools to the end of , Murdoch's academic career began with appointment as a Melbourne University assistant lecturer in English; this was in what had virtually become a combined department under the classics professor T. Murdoch published his first essay, "The new school of Australian poets", in , and he continued writing for the Argus , under the pen-name of "Elzevir", in a column which appeared weekly from titled "Books and Men".

In , Murdoch was passed over in favour of an overseas applicant, Sir Robert Wallace , for the re-created independent chair of English at Melbourne University. Murdoch spent the next year as a full-time member of the Argus ' s literary staff and was then selected as a founding professor of UWA.

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He commenced lectures in in tin sheds in the heart of Perth. The literary and other friendships formed in Melbourne still exerted a strong nostalgic influence upon the middle-aged Murdoch; this has been established by his warmly sympathetic, but not uncritical, biographer John La Nauze ; but the fact that he felt deeply his geographical and intellectual isolation in Perth was not evident to even his close associates there.

Through the inter-war years, Murdoch broadened his influence upon Australian life—most noticeably within the western State but extending throughout the Commonwealth. On the young campus, he had a considerable following outside his own department and his immediate academic colleagues.

Murdoch was known for his help to students and junior colleagues in difficulties. Sympathy for underdogs and a willingness to champion lost causes extended beyond Murdoch's academic environment, it coloured his second major contribution to Western Australian life: his association with several other members of the foundation professoriate in building closer links between the university and the community.

His most effective medium was the column he contributed to the "Life and Letters" page of the West Australian on alternate Saturday mornings. Combined from with occasional day and evening talks on radio—he was to prove a very effective broadcaster—and appearances on public platforms, frequently in the chair, it brought Murdoch a wide and varied local following, his writing attracted, in his biographer's words, varying types of people "who read him, all with interest, most with pleasure, some with disapproval, over many years".

These essays were directed at the widespread literate, but by no means academic, population of the still very isolated state, but Murdoch's audience did not stop there. Indeed, the "Elzevir" articles had begun to reappear in the Argus in , and the essays in varying forms found an all-Australian market when Murdoch's writings were eventually syndicated on the Melbourne Herald network, then chaired by his nephew Keith Murdoch.

Moreover, for nearly twenty years from , he conducted a weekly "Answers" column consisting of "little essays" on various questions, which was syndicated throughout New Zealand and most states and which was read by a huge public. What Murdoch described as his one "real book", Alfred Deakin: A Sketch , was the result of work done in a year's leave in and around Melbourne, it was not successful financially, nor as an introduction either to a larger joint biography later abandoned or to La Nauze's definitive two-volume Alfred Deakin: a Biography Murdoch's limited interest, in his middle and later years, in Australian writing has often been criticised.

However, in he published the Oxford Book of Australasian Verse revised, , and in , after many years' delay, with Henrietta Drake-Brockman , Australian Short Stories , which was much better received than the verse anthology. In addition to his academic teaching and the benefits which the young university obtained from his extramural activities, Murdoch was to remain a member of its governing body after he resigned from his chair in He had been president of the local League of Nations Union from its foundation in the early s until , was president of the Kindergarten Union in —36, and supported movements for women's rights.

A depression at the time did not stop his actively opposing the idea of secession from the Commonwealth as a solution to Western Australia's economic ills.

Selected Essays by Walter Murdoch

Much later, in —51, he vehemently and stalwartly opposed the attempt to outlaw the Communist Party of Australia , his prominent essay, "I am going to vote No", rebuked Robert Menzies ' attempt to eliminate the CPA in the referendum on that issue. Murdoch wrote that his opposition rested on one principle:. The Government is asking the citizens of Australia to give it powers which I do not believe that any government ought to possess The question turns on a very simple question.

Have we the right to punish a person for his opinions? If we punish anyone for breaking the law of the land, or for conspiring with others to break the law, that is justice; if we punish anyone for holding opinions with which we disagree, that is persecution. Though the last years of Murdoch's long life were spent more or less as a recluse, with increasing deafness and declining eyesight, he remained mentally alert to the end.

In , he paid the last of several visits to his beloved Italy; when in the month of his death he was given a bedside message from the premier that the State government was to name its second university after him, he was able to send an appreciative acceptance. He added, sotto voce , "It had better be a good one!

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Western Australia Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,, square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic ; the state has about 2. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog , who visited the Western Australian coast in ; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.

He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound , at present-day Albany , on 21 January formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in , including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September Western Australia achieved responsible government in and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports.

Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world.

The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1, km. There are 20, km including 7, km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2. In May , evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica , the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1, metres AHD.

Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about metres low relief, no surface runoff. This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment.


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The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc , copper and sometimes potassium and calcium ; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers.

These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia , making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".

Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri , one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current , the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world.

Average annual rainfall varies from millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1, millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer. Chancellor education A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system.

In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States , the head of a university is most a university president.

In both Australia and New Zealand , a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body. The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university.

Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in ; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Canada , the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor.

The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews , Aberdeen and Dundee , considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews ; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals.

An exception exists at Edinburgh , where the Rector is elected by staff.

In Finland , if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature.

Examples of these include the appointment of new docents ; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State.

In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire , the Russian Empire. The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university.


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  • In France , chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua. Scotch College, Melbourne Scotch College is an independent Presbyterian day and boarding school for boys, located in Hawthorn , an inner-eastern suburb of Melbourne, Australia. Studies have found that Scotch had more alumni mentioned in Who's Who in Australia than any other school, it is one of the wealthiest schools in Australia.

    In The Age reported that Scotch College "has educated more of Australia's most honoured and influential citizens than any other school in the nation", based on research that revealed its alumni had received more top Order of Australia honours than any other school; the college was established in as The Melbourne Academy in a house in Spring Street , Melbourne, by the Rev.

    Walter murdoch 72 essays

    James Forbes of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria , it is the oldest extant secondary school in Victoria and celebrated its sesquicentenary in Scotch College is the oldest surviving secondary school in Victoria, its foundation was due to the initiative of the Rev. James Forbes, of the Free Presbyterian Church , who arrived in as the first settled Christian minister in what became the colony of Victoria in , it is "the outcome of the old Scottish ideal of education", in which church and school were inextricably connected.

    The school opened on 6 October , under the name of the Melbourne Academy in a small house in Spring Street, with Robert Lawson , a Scot from Edinburgh University , as the first principal; the house was soon outgrown, as was a larger one on the northwest corner of Spring and Little Collins Streets and the Church applied to the government for a grant of land.

    Two acres were reserved for the school on Eastern Hill and substantial new buildings were erected there in ; the cost was met by a government grant and from funds raised by the friends of the school. Lawson resigned in Under his successor, Alexander Morrison , the school prospered. Morrison remained at Scotch for 46 years. William Still Littlejohn , who took over the school in , served for 29 years, his successor, Colin Macdonald Gilray , for So, when the school became the first in Victoria to celebrate its centenary, Gilray was only the fourth principal.

    Gilray was succeeded in by R. Healey retired in January In the following May, P. Roff Headmaster of Scotch College, was installed as the seventh principal of the college. Roff's tenure, though a brief seven years, was characterised by an expanding voice for staff in the day-to-day management of the school, the establishment of a Foundation Office at the School under the direction of a Development Officer and the widening of the House System to provide greater depth in pastoral care.

    His last few years saw the school in dispute over ownership and, for the principal and his school community, it was a time of stress. In the decision was made to incorporate the school and a new Council was appointed, with representatives from the Presbyterian Church, the Old Scotch Collegians ' Association and the community at large. Donaldson, a vice principal from Wallace High School , with a Ph. Under his principalship there was a significant building program that created new facilities for the education of boys, the development of ICT for administrative and educational purposes, enhanced pastoral care of students.

    Tom Batty was appointed as the ninth principal of Scotch and installed into office on 14 July Prior to his appointment he was Housemaster of Villiers House, Eton College in the UK; the early years of Batty's tenure have seen the introduction of a new House-based pastoral care structure in the Upper School, which began at the start of the school year. The School was called "The Melbourne Academy", after its location, when it opened in A white saltire on a blue background - the flag of Scotland representing the School's Scottish heritage; the Southern Cross - the Southern Cross constellation common symbol for Australia , representing the School's location and home.