English speaking essay

A Proposal of Effective Improvement of English Speaking Skills in Non-Native Speaking words (8 pages) Example Essay in Languages.
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Stressed syllables are pronounced longer, but unstressed syllables syllables between stresses are shortened. Vowels in unstressed syllables are shortened as well, and vowel shortening causes changes in vowel quality : vowel reduction.

EFL English Language Learning

Varieties of English vary the most in pronunciation of vowels. Countries such as Canada , Australia , Ireland , New Zealand and South Africa have their own standard varieties which are less often used as standards for education internationally. Some differences between the various dialects are shown in the table "Varieties of Standard English and their features".

English has undergone many historical sound changes , some of them affecting all varieties, and others affecting only a few.

Most standard varieties are affected by the Great Vowel Shift , which changed the pronunciation of long vowels, but a few dialects have slightly different results. In North America, a number of chain shifts such as the Northern Cities Vowel Shift and Canadian Shift have produced very different vowel landscapes in some regional accents. Some dialects have fewer or more consonant phonemes and phones than the standard varieties.

The table "Dialects and open vowels" shows this variation with lexical sets in which these sounds occur. As is typical of an Indo-European language, English follows accusative morphosyntactic alignment. Unlike other Indo-European languages though, English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system in favor of analytic constructions. Only the personal pronouns retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class. English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners including articles , prepositions, and conjunctions.

Some analyses add pronouns as a class separate from nouns, and subdivide conjunctions into subordinators and coordinators, and add the class of interjections. Questions are marked by do-support , wh-movement fronting of question words beginning with wh - and word order inversion with some verbs. Some traits typical of Germanic languages persist in English, such as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong stems inflected through ablaut i. The seven word classes are exemplified in this sample sentence: [].

English nouns are only inflected for number and possession. New nouns can be formed through derivation or compounding. They are semantically divided into proper nouns names and common nouns.

Common nouns are in turn divided into concrete and abstract nouns, and grammatically into count nouns and mass nouns. Most count nouns are inflected for plural number through the use of the plural suffix - s , but a few nouns have irregular plural forms. Mass nouns can only be pluralised through the use of a count noun classifier, e.

Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic - s also traditionally called a genitive suffix , or by the preposition of. Historically the -s possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the of possessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. Today this distinction is less clear, and many speakers use - s also with inanimates.

Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe. Nouns can form noun phrases NPs where they are the syntactic head of the words that depend on them such as determiners, quantifiers, conjunctions or adjectives. They can also include modifiers such as adjectives e. But they can also tie together several nouns into a single long NP, using conjunctions such as and , or prepositions such as with , e.

Regardless of length, an NP functions as a syntactic unit. The class of determiners is used to specify the noun they precede in terms of definiteness , where the marks a definite noun and a or an an indefinite one. A definite noun is assumed by the speaker to be already known by the interlocutor, whereas an indefinite noun is not specified as being previously known. Quantifiers, which include one , many , some and all , are used to specify the noun in terms of quantity or number.

The noun must agree with the number of the determiner, e. Determiners are the first constituents in a noun phrase. Adjectives modify a noun by providing additional information about their referents.

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In English, adjectives come before the nouns they modify and after determiners. For example, in the phrases the slender boy , and many slender girls , the adjective slender does not change form to agree with either the number or gender of the noun.

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Some adjectives are inflected for degree of comparison , with the positive degree unmarked, the suffix -er marking the comparative, and -est marking the superlative: a small boy , the boy is smaller than the girl , that boy is the smallest. Some adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms, such as good , better , and best. Other adjectives have comparatives formed by periphrastic constructions , with the adverb more marking the comparative, and most marking the superlative: happier or more happy , the happiest or most happy.

English pronouns conserve many traits of case and gender inflection. The subjective case corresponds to the Old English nominative case , and the objective case is used both in the sense of the previous accusative case in the role of patient, or direct object of a transitive verb , and in the sense of the Old English dative case in the role of a recipient or indirect object of a transitive verb. Possessive pronouns exist in dependent and independent forms; the dependent form functions as a determiner specifying a noun as in my chair , while the independent form can stand alone as if it were a noun e.

Some dialects have introduced innovative 2nd person plural pronouns such as y'all found in Southern American English and African American Vernacular English or youse found in Australian English and ye in Irish English. Pronouns are used to refer to entities deictically or anaphorically. A deictic pronoun points to some person or object by identifying it relative to the speech situation—for example, the pronoun I identifies the speaker, and the pronoun you , the addressee.

Anaphoric pronouns such as that refer back to an entity already mentioned or assumed by the speaker to be known by the audience, for example in the sentence I already told you that.

The reflexive pronouns are used when the oblique argument is identical to the subject of a phrase e. Prepositional phrases PP are phrases composed of a preposition and one or more nouns, e. They are used to describe movement, place, and other relations between different entities, but they also have many syntactic uses such as introducing complement clauses and oblique arguments of verbs.

Traditionally words were only considered prepositions if they governed the case of the noun they preceded, for example causing the pronouns to use the objective rather than subjective form, "with her", "to me", "for us". English verbs are inflected for tense and aspect and marked for agreement with present-tense third-person singular subject.

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Only the copula verb to be is still inflected for agreement with the plural and first and second person subjects. They form complex tenses, aspects, and moods. Auxiliary verbs differ from other verbs in that they can be followed by the negation, and in that they can occur as the first constituent in a question sentence. Most verbs have six inflectional forms. The primary forms are a plain present, a third-person singular present, and a preterite past form.

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The secondary forms are a plain form used for the infinitive, a gerund-participle and a past participle. The first-person present-tense form is am , the third person singular form is is , and the form are is used in the second-person singular and all three plurals. The only verb past participle is been and its gerund-participle is being. English has two primary tenses, past preterit and non-past. The preterit is inflected by using the preterit form of the verb, which for the regular verbs includes the suffix -ed , and for the strong verbs either the suffix -t or a change in the stem vowel.

The non-past form is unmarked except in the third person singular, which takes the suffix -s. English does not have a morphologised future tense. Further aspectual distinctions are encoded by the use of auxiliary verbs, primarily have and be , which encode the contrast between a perfect and non-perfect past tense I have run vs.

I was running , and compound tenses such as preterite perfect I had been running and present perfect I have been running. For the expression of mood, English uses a number of modal auxiliaries, such as can , may , will , shall and the past tense forms could , might , would , should. There is also a subjunctive and an imperative mood, both based on the plain form of the verb i. An infinitive form, that uses the plain form of the verb and the preposition to , is used for verbal clauses that are syntactically subordinate to a finite verbal clause.